Each ReB2 synthesis route has its own drawbacks, and this one gives small inclusions of aluminum incorporated into the crystal lattice. Although this is true, the properties associated with these small changes has led to interesting new potential applications of synthetic diamond. Cubic boron nitride-coated grinding wheels, referred to as Borazon wheels, are routinely used in the machining of hard ferrous metals, cast irons, and nickel-base and cobalt-base superalloys. , Several properties must be taken into account when evaluating a material as (super)hard. When testing coatings, scratch hardness refers to the force necessary to cut through the film to the substrate. If there exists an atom in a site where there should normally not be, an interstitial defect is formed. Cubic boron nitride adopts a sphalerite crystal structure, which can be constructed by replacing every two carbon atoms in diamond with one boron atom and one nitrogen atom. , Historically, it was thought that synthetic diamond should be structurally perfect to be useful. In solid mechanics, solids generally have three responses to force, depending on the amount of force and the type of material: Several hundred tonnes of c-BN are produced worldwide each year. OsB2 has an orthorhombic structure (space group Pmmn) with two planes of osmium atoms separated by a non-planar layer of hexagonally coordinated boron atoms; the lattice parameters are a = 4.684 Å, b = 2.872 Å and c = 4.096 Å. , The hardness of synthetic diamond (70–150 GPa) is very dependent on the relative purity of the crystal itself. Electrostatic repulsion is the force that maximizes the materials incompressibility and so in this case the electrostatic repulsion is not taken full advantage of. The tests work on the basic premise of measuring the critical dimensions of an indentation left by a specifically dimensioned and loaded indenter. Macroscopic hardness is generally characterized by strong intermolecular bonds, but the behavior of solid materials under force is complex; therefore, there are different measurements of hardness: scratch hardness, indentation hardness, and rebound hardness. They also simultaneously achieve an oxidation temperature that is 200 °C higher than that of natural diamond. If there is a different type of atom at the lattice site that should normally be occupied by a metal atom, a substitutional defect is formed. In solid mechanics, solids generally have three responses to force, depending on the amount of force and the type of material: Strength is a measure of the extent of a material's elastic range, or elastic and plastic ranges together. By varying the presence of interstitial atoms and the density of dislocations, a particular metal's hardness can be controlled. At this point, it is the only superhard material with metallic behavior. Two scales that measures rebound hardness are the Leeb rebound hardness test and Bennett hardness scale. They are expected to be thermally and chemically more stable than diamond, and harder than c-BN, and would therefore be excellent materials for high speed cutting and polishing of ferrous alloys. Heterostructures were first proposed in 1970 and contained such highly ordered thin layers that they could not theoretically be separated by mechanical means. Rhenium diboride also has a reported bulk modulus of 383 GPa and a shear modulus of 273 GPa. Brittleness, in technical usage, is the tendency of a material to fracture with very little or no detectable plastic deformation beforehand. Thus in technical terms, a material can be both brittle and strong. The way to inhibit the movement of planes of atoms, and thus make them harder, involves the interaction of dislocations with each other and interstitial atoms.  The general process for c-BN synthesis is the dissolution of hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) in a solvent-catalyst, usually alkali or alkaline earth metals or their nitrides, followed by spontaneous nucleation of c-BN under high pressure, high temperature (HPHT) conditions.  At present, the capabilities for the production of c-BN are restricted to pressures of about 6 GPa. Some materials (e.g. This theory was confirmed with Al/Cu and Al/Ag structures. Four years after the first synthesis of artificial diamond, cubic boron nitride c-BN was obtained and found to be the second hardest solid.  Most metal borides are hard; however, a few stand out among them for their particularly high hardnesses (for example, WB4, RuB2, OsB2 and ReB2). There are three main point defects. Haasen, P. (1978). m1/2, which is high compared to other gemstones and ceramic materials, but poor compared to many metals and alloys – common steels and aluminium alloys have the toughness values at least 5 times higher. A common way to synthesize OsB2 is by a solid-state metathesis reaction containing a 2:3 mixture of OsCl3:MgB2. Ultimate strength is an engineering measure of the maximum load a part of a specific material and geometry can withstand. There are two oxygen atoms located along the (111) rhombohedral direction.  Because of its stability with heat and metals, c-BN surpasses diamond in mechanical applications. Covalent materials generally have high bond-bending force constants and high shear moduli and are more likely to give superhard structures than, for example, ionic solids. The structure of beta carbon nitride (β-C3N4) was first proposed by Amy Liu and Marvin Cohen in 1989.